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Title:Zinc nutrition as we enter endemic phase

Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9701160/ Zinc is known to play a central role in the immune system and zinc-deficient persons experience increased susceptibility to a variety of pathogens It is clear that zinc affects multiple aspects of the immune system Zinc is crucial for normal development and function of cells mediating nonspecific immunity such as neutrophils and natural killer cells Zinc deficiency also affects development of acquired immunity, activation of T lymphocytes and B lymphocyte help B lymphocyte development and antibody production, particularly immunoglobulin G, is compromised The macrophage, is adversely affected by zinc deficiency Zinc is needed by these key immunologic mediators Basic cellular functions such as DNA replication RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01… Zinc deficiency results in altered numbers and dysfunction of all immune cells Suboptimal zinc states have an increased risk for infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer Risk groups for zinc deficiency Malnutrition Elderly and patients with various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases Mild zinc deficiency is largely sub-clinical, it is unnoticed in most people World Health Organization Assumes that at least one third of the world population is affected by zinc deficiency Zinc deficiency is responsible for 16% of all deep respiratory infections world-wide Supplementation, for which minimal to no side effects are known. Europe 10 to 20% zinc deficiency translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=https…//www.phmk.es/i-d/suplementar-con-zinc-podria-reducir-la-mortalidad-en-el-paciente-de-covid-19&prev=search&pto=aue Zinc Protects the Human Body From Entering of the Virus Essential for tissue barriers equipped with cilia and mucus, anti-microbial peptides like lysozymes and interferons The expression of tight junction proteins was found to be zinc-dependent Mucociliar clearance of viruses is affected by zinc Physiological concentrations of zinc increase ciliary beat frequency Zinc-dependent alterations in gene expression by pneumocytes Associations with interferons Zinc Directly Inhibits Viral Replication Direct antiviral effects of zinc have been demonstrated E.g. coronaviridae, picornavirus, papilloma virus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the hepatitis C virus It was suggested that zinc can prevent fusion with the host membrane Decreases the viral polymerase function Blocks viral particle release Destabilizes the viral envelope Zinc Balances the Immune Response During Infectious Diseases Hyper-inflammation, immune products including pro-inflammatory cytokines Movement and over activation of immune cells to the lungs Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Need of zinc for lymphocyte development and function and that zinc supplementation can reverse lymphopenia Zinc is indispensable in the signal cascade of the T cell receptor and as a second messenger Zinc is required for B cell maturation and function Zinc Supplementation in Respiratory Infections A row of successful supplementation studies focusing on respiratory tract infection In most cases, prophylactic zinc supplementation was more effective than therapeutic proceedings Studies showed reduced symptom severity, reduced frequency, and duration of the common cold after zinc administration Zinc supplementation of children in developing countries Reduced pneumonia-specific morality by 15% and 19% of pneumonia morbidity by 19% Risk Groups and Symptoms of COVID-19 and Zinc Deficiency Reveal a Large Overlap Low serum zinc levels are regularly observed in: COPD, bronchial asthma, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, kidney diseases, dialysis, obesity, diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppression, and known liver damage 57.5% elderly and nursing home residents in the U.S., showed significantly decreased zinc intake Zinc supplementation was able to reconstitute immune function in elderly and zinc deficient individuals www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482607/ (Journal of infectious diseases) The study data clearly show that a significant number of COVID-19 patients were zinc deficient. These zinc deficient patients developed more complications, and the deficiency was associated with a prolonged hospital stay and increased mortality. Foods containing zinc Meat Shellfish Seeds Nuts Dairy Eggs Whole gains Legumes Potatoes Dark chocolate Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-982/zinc Boys and men age 14 and older, 11 mg/day Women 19 and older, 8 mg/day Pregnant women 11 to 18 mg / day Lactating women 12 to 14 Mg/day


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